DSM-IV defines the diagnostic criteria for substance abuse as a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically
significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one or more of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:
Recurrent substance use resulting in
a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (e.g., repeated absences or poor work performance related
to substance use; substance-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school; neglect of children or household). Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (e.g., driving an
automobile or operating a machine when impaired by substance use).
Recurrent substance-related legal problems
(e.g., arrests for substance-related disorderly conduct).
Continued substance use despite having
persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (e.g., arguments
with spouse about consequences of intoxication, physical fights).