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Co-Occurring Schizophrenia and Substance Dependence/Abuse

Substance Dependence
Substance Abuse
Assessment of Co-occurring Disorders
Motivational Interviewing
Applying MI: Express Empathy
Applying MI: Develop Discrepancy
Applying MI: Avoid Argument
Applying MI: Roll With Resistance
Applying MI: Support Self-Efficacy
Evidence Based for Motivational Interviewing
Future Research and Barriers to Service
Web sites of Interest

American Psychiatric Association.  (1994).  Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental

disorders (4th ed.).  Washington, DC: Author.  


Baker, A., Lewin, T., Reichler, H., Clancy, R., Carr, V., Garrett, R., Sly, K., Devir, H. &

Terry, M.  (2002).  Motivational interviewing among psychiatric in-patients with substance use disorders.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106, 233-240.


Bender, K.J. (2003, May).  Integrated care for co-occurring disorders to become SAMHSA priority.  Psychiatric Times, 5, 65.


Britt, E., Blampied, N.M., Neville, M., & Stephen, M. (2003).  Motivational interviewing: A review.  Australian Psychologist, 38 (3), 193-201.


DiNitto, D.M., Webb, D.K. & Rubin, A. (2002).  The effectiveness of an intergrated treatment approach for clients with dual diagnoses.  Research on Social Work Practice, 12(5), 621-641.


Gatchel, R.J. (2005). Motivational issues.  Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.


Graeber, D.A., Moyers, T.B., Griffith, G., Guijardo, E. & Tonigan, S.  (2003).  A pilot

study comparing motivational interviewing and an educational intervention in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders.  Community Mental Health Journal, 39(3), 189-202.


Haddock, G., Barrowclough, C., Tarrier, N. & Moring, J.  (2003).  Cognitive behavioral

therapy and motivational interviewing for schizophrenia and substance misuse.

The British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 418-426.


Hanlon, P.M. (2002, June).  Moving services under one roof: providers explore advantages of cross-training staff.  Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow, 11 (3), 32-35.


Hofmann, S.G. & Tompson, M.C. (2004).  Treating chronic and severe mental disorders: A handbook of empirically supported interventions.  New York: The Guiford Press.


Hulse, G.K. & Tait, R.J. (2003).  Five year outcome of brief alcohol intervention for adult

in-patients with psychiatric disorders.  Addiction, 98, 1061-1068.


Jackim, L.W. (2002, June).  What are the numbers? Getting true prevalence rates too complex to rush, too important to bungle. (Special Report). Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow, 11 (3), SR35-37.


McHugo, G.J., Drake, R.E., Burton, H. L. & Theimann, A.H. (1995).  A scale for

assessing the stage of substance abuse treatment in persons with severe mental illness.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183(12), 762-767.


Miller, W. & Rollick, S. (Eds.). (2002).  Motivational interviewing: Preparing people

for change (2nd ed.).  New York: The Guilford Press.


Miller, W. (2000).  Enhancing motivation for change in substance abuse treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Mullins, S.M., Suarez, M., Ondersma, S.J., & Page, M.C. (2004, July).  The impact of motivational interviewing on substance abuse treatment retention: A randomized control trial of women involved with child welfare.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27 (1), 51-58.


Drake, R., Essock, S., Shaner, A., Carey, K., Minkoff, K., Kola, L., et al. (2001).

Implementing dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness.  Psychiatric Services, 52(4), 469-476.


Drake, R.E., Mueser, K.T., Brunette, M. F. & McHugo, G.J. (2004).  A review of

treatments for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(4), 360-374.


HealthyPlace Addictions Community (No Date). Co-Occurring Disorders Becoming More Prevalent from NIDA News Release.  Retrieved from


Hulse, G.K. & Tait, R.J. (2003).  Five-year outcomes of a brief alcohol intervention for adult in-patients with psychiatric disorders.  Addiction, 98, 1061-1068.


Martino, S., Carroll, K., Kostas, D., Perkins, J., & Rounsaville, B. (2002, December).  Dual Diagnosis Motivational Interviewing: A modification of Motivation Interviewing for substance-abusing patients with psychotic disorders.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23 (4), 297-308.


Mwercer, C.C., Mueser, K.T. & Drake, R. (1998).  Organizational guidelines for dual

disorders programs.  Psychiatric Quarterly, 69(3), 145-168.


Rector, N.A., Seeman, W.V. & Segal, Z.V. (2003).  Cognitive therapy for schizophrenia:

A preliminary randomized control trial.  Schizophrenia Research, 63(1),1-11.


Samhsa’s National Mental Health Information Center (No Date).  Evidence-Based Practices: Shaping Mental Health Services toward Recovery. Co-Occurring Disorders: Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment Workbook (Ch.10, Motivational Interviewing).  Retrieved from


Secades-Villa, R. (2004). Motivational interviewing and treatment retention among drug user patients: A pilot study.  Substance Use and Misuse, 39 (9), 1369-1378.


Smith-Ossman, S. (2004, May-June).  Motivational interviewing: a process to encourage behavioral change.  Nephrology Nursing Journal, 31 (3), 346-348.


Steinberg, M., Ziedonis, D., Krejci, J., & Brandon, T. (2003). Motivational interviewing with personalized feedback: A brief intervention for motivating smokers with schizophrenia to seek treatment for tobacco dependence.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72 (2), 723-728.


Strang, J., McCambridge, J., Platts, S., & Groves, P. (2004).  Engaging the reluctant GP in care of the opiate misuser: Pilot study of change-oriented reflective listening (CORL). Family Practice, 21 (2), 150-154.


Underwood, L.A. & Falwell, S.H. (2002). Screening and assessing co-occurring disorders. Corrections Today, 64 (3), 22-24.


Van Horn, D.H.A., & Bux Jr., D.A. (2001, March). A pilot test of motivational interviewing groups for dually diagnosed inpatients.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 20 (2), 191-195.


Weiss, R.D, Kolodziej, M.K., Najavits, L.M., Greenfield, S.F. & Fucito, L.M.  (2000).

Utilization of psychosocial treatment by patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and substance dependence.  The American Journal of Addictions, 9, 313-320.


Wright, N., Smeeth, L., & Heath, I. (2003, March).  Moving beyond single and dual diagnosis in general practice: many patients have multiple morbidities, and their needs have to be addressed. (Editorials).  British Medical Journal, 326 (7388), 512-515.



Nicole & Colleen